The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) carries out diverse roles in visual processing and behaviors, but how these functions are delegated among collicular neurons remains unclear. Here, using single-cell transcriptomics, we identified 28 neuron subtypes and subtype-enriched marker genes from tens of thousands of adult mouse sSC neurons. We then asked whether the sSC’s molecular subtypes are tuned to different visual stimuli. Specifically, we imaged calcium dynamics in single sSC neurons in vivo during visual stimulation and then mapped marker gene transcripts onto the same neurons ex vivo. Our results identify a molecular subtype of inhibitory neuron accounting for ∼50% of the sSC’s direction-selective cells, suggesting a genetic logic for the functional organization of the sSC. In addition, our studies provide a comprehensive molecular atlas of sSC neuron subtypes and a multimodal mapping method that will facilitate investigation of their respective functions, connectivity, and development.