STAND: Students Taking Action against interNet Discrimination 

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We contend that when greater numbers of White students confront online racial discrimination, incidents of online racial discrimination will diminish, and Black students will feel a greater sense of institutional belonging. Using experimental methods, this study will first examine whether White confrontations of racist online behavior improve Black students’ perceptions of racial climate and sense of belonging. We will then refine and test an intervention to encourage White students to confront online discrimination using a full factorial experiment approach. The intervention exposes White students to the harm racist posts cause Black peers, asks White students to share a success story about confronting online discrimination, and offers White students guidance and opportunities to practice how to confront online discrimination.


Hurd, N. M., Trawalter, S., Jakubow, A., Johnson, H. E., & Billingsley, J. T. (2021). Online racial discrimination and the role of white bystanders. American Psychologist, 77(1), 39.