Neurological diseases comprise more than a thousand ailments that adversely affect the brain and nervous system. When grouped together, these neurological conditions impact an estimated 100 million individuals in the United States and up to a billion people worldwide, making drug discovery efforts imperative. However, recent research and development efforts for these neurological diseases, including Alzheimer s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, have been exceedingly disappointing and typify the challenges associated with translating in vitro and cell-based discoveries to successful preclinical models and subsequent human clinical trials. Our viewpoint is that neuronal progenitor cells and neurons derived from inducible pluripotent stem cells afford an innovative translational bridge, with higher pathological relevancy than previous cellular models. We outline some of the opportunities and challenges associated with their evolving usage in drug discovery and development.